SPINAL CORD INJURY
Injuries and diseases of the spinal cord and spine
Tasks of rehabilitative programs of our center – to maximize the recovery of lost functions and to tech the patient to live in new conditions, even at impossibility of full recovery, return to him faith in himself, to make him maximal independent and free in all spheres of life.
Vertebral-spinal trauma and diseases of the spinal cord (SC) – mechanical damage of the spine and SC leading to the violation of bone carcass of the spine and damage of SC. Injury occurs as a result of direct contusion, compression bone fragments of the spine or intervertebral discs, compression of hematoma, development of ischemic violations in consequence of SC swelling.
Nontraumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord may develop due to the various pathological processes, such as tumors, degenerative and autoimmune diseases.
The main clinical factors that determine the severity of the injury or disease are: the degree of SC damage, the development of sensitivity disorders and muscle function of the body (paralysis), violations of urination and defecation, pain syndrome.
ConsequencesDepending on the degree of the spinal cord injury after trauma or in consequence of disease, in many patients it can be observed:
- in lesions of SC at various levels of the cervical spine it’s observed: paralysis of the upper and lower extremities, violation of the sensitivity of the body, disorders of defecation and urination;
- in lesions of SC below the cervical spine it can be observed: paralysis of the lower half of the body, the violation of the sensitivity of the body at the level of spinal cord injury, violation of defecation and urination. These violations can lead to the various complications:
- Urinary infection;
- Spastic syndrome (Spasticity) – the syndrome is characterized by pathological contraction of muscles of paralyzed limbs, leading to the emergence of stiffness and complete block of movements (contractions) in the joints. Spastic syndrome is often accompanied by severe pain; Sepsis;
- Psychological disorders. Sudden mood swings, depression, irritability. Depression (a very frequent problem of people with diseases or injuries of the spine and spinal cord) is often accompanied by loss of appetite, causeless laughter or crying, insomnia, low self-esteem and increased sense of anxiety.
Early rehabilitation of patients with injuries of the spine and SC, their integration into normal life – that’s the main goal of rehabilitative programs of our center.
The possibility of partial recovery of functions, lost due to the injury, was repeatedly confirmed, even at full anatomical spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation of patients mainly depends on such factors as the level of severity and the prescription of injury, the age of the patient, timely treatment and rehabilitation program. The main disabling consequences of the spinal cord lesions are violations of movement function in the form of complete paralysis (tetraparesis) or paralysis of the lower extremities (lower paraparesis) depending on the level of the lesion. The primary task of rehabilitation of such patients – recovery of impellent activity of patients: most of the patients need to various activities of rehabilitative therapy as in outpatient and inpatient conditions.
The lack of rehabilitation treatment stage dooms the patient and his family for a long and painful process of self-treatment, which sometimes leads to fatal complications. The overall goal of rehabilitation is to improve the abilities of the patient to normal life in the family and society, even in the residual effects of functional disorders of the SC, which can be complicated and multifaceted.
We help the patient adapt to disabilities or change the patient’s living space and conditions to make daily activities easier even under significant neurological disorders.
No less important goals of the rehabilitative program are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complications and consequences of lesions of the spinal cord, such as various purulent septic complications (pressure sores, pneumonia, urinary infection, sepsis), deep venous thrombosis with the development of pulmonary thromboembolism, spastic syndrome. Each of these complications may result in the death of the patient.
Early initiation of rehabilitation prevents profound invalidization and helps patients return to a normal life.
Rehabilitation is the process of achieving an optimal level of social adaptation and independence of a person who had suffered a head injury in the following ways:
- Learning new skills;
- Relearning skills and abilities.
Rehabilitation is aimed at the attainment of independence of the person in many areas. The basic skills are:
- Self-help skills such as feeding, grooming, bathing and dressing;
- Performing toilets, self-care for bladder;
- Mobility skills such as subtle movements, walking or running self-propelled wheelchairs.